In this document, the IRS provides guidance on recent changes to Section 179 expense and bonus depreciation. Importantly, the 179 expense is increased for inflation to $510,000 and bonus depreciation is 50% for 2017 but decreases to 40% in 2018 and 30% in 2019. The latter change obviously provides a tax advantage for businesses to place qualifying prorperty into service in 2017 rather than 2018. For more information regarding this document or any other tax concern, please call us at 404-255-7400 or firstname.lastname@example.org.
The IRS is beginning the process of transferring the overdue tax debt of a small group of taxpayers to private debt collectors. Importantly, the private debt collectors are not entitled to take enforcement action (only an IRS agent can do so). While the program is currently very small, it could portend the future if successful:
Here is what you need to know if you are claiming medical/dental expenses as itemized deductions:
Medical expenses can trim taxes. Keeping good records and knowing what to deduct make all the difference. Here are some tips to help taxpayers know what qualifies as medical and dental expenses:
• Itemize. Taxpayers can only claim medical expenses that they paid for in 2016 if they itemize deductions on a federal tax return.
• Qualifying Expenses. Taxpayers can include most medical and dental costs that they paid for themselves, their spouses and their dependents including:
• The costs of diagnosing, treating, easing or preventing disease.
• The costs paid for prescription drugs and insulin.
• The costs paid for insurance premiums for policies that cover medical care.
• Some long-term care insurance costs.
Exceptions and special rules apply. Costs reimbursed by insurance or other sources normally do not qualify for a deduction. More examples of what costs taxpayers can and can’t deduct are in IRS Publication 502 , Medical and Dental Expenses.
• Travel Costs Count. It is possible to deduct travel costs paid for medical care. This includes costs such as public transportation, ambulance service, tolls and parking fees. For use of a car, deduct either the actual costs or the standard mileage rate for medical travel. The rate is 19 cents per mile for 2016.
• No Double Benefit. Don’t claim a tax deduction for medical expenses paid with funds from your Health Savings Accounts or Flexible Spending Arrangements . Amounts paid with funds from these plans are usually tax-free.
• Use the Tool. Taxpayers can use the Interactive Tax Assistant tool on IRS.gov to see if they can deduct their medical expenses.
Taxpayers should keep a copy of their tax return. Beginning in 2017, taxpayers using a software product for the first time may need their Adjusted Gross Income (AGI) amount from their prior-year tax return to verify their identity. Taxpayers can learn more about how to verify their identity and electronically sign tax returns at Validating Your Electronically Filed Tax Return .
For more information regarding this or any other tax concern please contact Hoffman & Associates at 404-255-7400 or email@example.com.
Genworth, an insurance company that sells long-term care insurance, recently concluded their annual report surveying over 15,000 assisted living facilities, nursing homes and other long-term providers across the country. The report found that the median cost for a private nursing home room has risen from $87,600 in 2014 to just over $91,000 per year. While costs vary widely from state to state, the cost of care in a nursing home has risen at twice the rate of U.S. inflation in the past 5 years.
Much of the aging population believes that Medicare will cover these expenses. Not so. “Medicare does not pay the largest part of long-term care services or personal care – such as help with bathing, or for supervision often called custodial care.” Medicare will pay for a “short stay” if the stay is following a hospital stay of at least three days, the individual is admitted to a Medicare-certified nursing facility and the individual requires “skilled care,” as in physical therapy or nursing services (up to 100 days, although Medicare will only pay 100% for the first 20 days, then the individual must pay a co-pay, currently $157.50 per day). Medicare will not cover long-term care when an individual is suffering from memory impairment or a degenerative disease that impairs the individual’s ability to care for themselves, i.e. bathe, get in and out of bed, etc. Medicare will pay for hospice care, only if one is expected to live less than 6 months—if you have a prospect of a year, you’re on your own. The bottom line is Medicare is not going to cover long-term care in a facility, nor will they cover around-the-clock care at home.
So where do you turn? Long-term care insurance. The difficulty with this is the expensive premiums if you wait too long. The policies can cost upwards of $3,000 per year but max out at a total benefit of $164,000 with a daily benefit allowance of $150 for 3 years. This can help offset the Medicare premium following a hospital stay.
In the event long-term care insurance maxes out, the final option in long-term care is Medicaid. It’s estimated that Medicaid pays for more than half of long-term care throughout the country. However, you must be eligible for Medicaid in order to qualify for assistance, which, in addition to other requirements, has a “resource limit” of $2,000 (although homes are exempt from this calculation). This has led to many elderly individuals depleting hundreds of thousands of dollars in a few short years in order to cover the expense. Then, when they are down to their last $2,000, Medicaid will assist them. These now impoverished individuals have no means for additional necessities aside from what the government offers through social security, disability, Medicaid, food stamps and other state government programs. Additionally, Medicaid will seek reimbursement from the individual’s estate after their death, including their home, in some instances.
This is one of the many reasons proper, and early, estate planning is so crucial. With proper planning, an aging client can align assets in the event of an illness or hospitalization ensuring that:
(1) They will have someone they trust making decisions for them, their previously designated health care agent;
(2) They will have the proper long-term care insurance to assist in covering the cost of long-term care, in the event it’s necessary; and
(3) They will have safeguards in place so that if they require Medicaid assistance, depleting all of their resources is not required.
However, in order for the estate plan to be effective, it must be structured early and prior to the onset of illness. Each family has different goals which they hope to accomplish. We can work with you to set up the most effective estate plan to accomplish you and your family’s goals.
At Hoffman & Associates, we advise many of our clients to form limited liability companies, known as LLCs, to hold and protect their assets. In general, an owner of an LLC interest, or a “member” of the LLC, will not be responsible for any debts of the LLC, which is a win-win situation for the client. Further, if the member gets sued for something related to the LLC, such as the actions of an employee of the LLC or product liability from a product produced by the LLC, the member’s personal property will be shielded from the person suing the LLC.
Additionally, if a member is sued for something unrelated to the LLC, the member’s LLC interest will be somewhat shielded from that judgment creditor. Often the remedy for a judgment creditor against a member of an LLC is what is known as a “charging order,” which means they cannot take ownership of the LLC, but will be entitled to any LLC distributions to that Member.
However, in a few limited instances, a court will look through the LLC to get to a Member’s assets, known as “piercing the veil” of the LLC. Generally, this is done in the case of an LLC with only one member, which is the situation numerous clients find themselves in – they do not have a partner to add or do not want to add a partner to their business. Even with this risk, many clients will want to own the whole LLC themselves, which is a very simple structure, since all of the LLC’s taxes would pass through to that single member.
Often, states are more likely to pierce the veil or not limit the remedy to a charging order in the case of single-member LLCs, or SMLLCs. In fact, only a handful of states limit action against a member of a SMLLC to a charging order. Delaware, Nevada and Wyoming are the popular states that offer this statutory protection. If a client is focused on asset protection and does not want an additional LLC member, forming the LLC in one of these three states is the best course of action.
Even in a state that limits a remedy to a charging order, a court can still pierce the veil of a SMLLC if the LLC member does not respect the structure of the LLC. In a recent Wyoming case, Greenhunter Energy, Inc. v. Western, 2014 WY 144, (WY S.C., Nov. 7, 2014), the Wyoming Supreme Court completely disregarded a SMLLC because the Member did not treat the LLC like a separate operating entity. There were numerous problems in this case, but they are easily avoidable with a proper Operating Agreement and by respecting the LLC as a separate entity.
Some clients desire more anonymity. Delaware, Nevada, and Wyoming all require a manager’s name to be filed with the state, which becomes an easily accessible public record. If a client also desires anonymity, one option would be to form an LLC in a state that does not require a manager’s name to be listed (such as Georgia) and have that LLC serve as the manager of the SMLLC.
Although the SMLLC can be ineffective if not formed and used properly, as shown in the Greenhunter Energy case, it can be a great tool for those clients who have asset protection goals, even if they do not want to bring a partner into their business. If this is you or someone you know, please contact Hoffman & Associates to discuss a single-member LLC to protect your assets.
Family Limited Partnerships (FLPs) and Family Limited Liability Companies (FLLCs) have long been used for a variety of purposes, including centralized asset management, creditor protection, efficient legacy planning, and implementing legitimate discounting and freezing techniques for estate planning purposes. Our estate and gift tax system relies on accurately determining the fair market value of the property being transferred. Fair market value is to be determined objectively considering hypothetical buyers and sellers. Appraisers must take into account valuation discounts for lack of control and lack of marketability. When property is transferred to descendants or trusts, the value of the particular property being transferred is what is reported for gift tax purposes, and then the property with all future appreciation is excluded from the grantor’s estate.
The IRS began a campaign of attacking FLPs back in 1997. Court decisions have generally rebuffed various tactics and positions taken by the IRS in the family limited partnership area.
The IRS publishes its priority guidance plan each year to emphasize areas of the tax law that the IRS may issue additional regulations. Additional regulations affecting valuations in an intra-family transfer context has been on the IRS’ priority guidance plan for the last 11 years. Now, it has been elevated to a proposal set forth in President Obama’s Administration’s 2013 Green Book. The IRS recently announced that it could issue proposed regulations as early as September, which would severely restrict valuation discounts for interests in FLPs and other family entities.
Articles are now appearing which are encouraging estate planners and clients to get ahead of these likely new rules. It is likely that the IRS position will be that any new rules will be effective upon the publication of the proposed regulations, even though they will not become “final” regulations until a much later date.
Earlier this summer, we sent messages to clients who are in the midst of their estate planning that they may want to expedite the process, before the IRS can issue proposed regulations which greatly curtail the legitimate discounting and freezing techniques that we’ve implemented with countless clients. One would think that only Congress can change the law with respect to re-defining the value of property for gift and estate tax purposes, but the Obama Administration has an historical edict of affecting change by more government regulation. The IRS, no doubt, is feeling very confident in their power to limit valuation discounts by way of their regulatory authority.
If you have put off further estate planning, time may be of the essence. If your planning should include the many benefits of FLPs and FLLCs, or if you have an FLP or FLLC and gifting may be appropriate, you may want to get with your advisor sooner, rather than later. If we can help, give us a call.
As Georgia based attorneys, we are very comfortable with the Will-based Estate plan. Georgia probate courts are friendly and easy to work with, and Georgia law allows a Testator to waive the requirements of a bond, inventory and reporting to the court. We cannot overlook the importance of a Revocable Living Trust, however, for those clients with out of state assets or where avoidance of probate is simply a desirable goal.
A Revocable Living Trust is, as its name implies, revocable or amendable at will by the Grantor, and living, which means it is funded and used during the lifetime of the Grantor as opposed to solely at death like a Will. Generally, the Grantor funds the Living Trust with all of his or her assets, and the Grantor is generally the sole Trustee and the primary beneficiary of the Trust. Though this all sounds somewhat circular, the Trust provides a very legitimate legal solution: having the trust own all of your assets means you do not need a legal process to change title to those assets upon your passing.
For states like Florida, the Revocable Living Trust is a common estate planning document simply to avoid the probate process. There, unlike Georgia, courts require the Personal Representative to post a bond, an inventory of the decedent’s assets must be provided to the court, and various accountings are also required to be filed. The result is a generally a significantly more expensive and time-consuming probate process than in Georgia. The Living Trust is not just for Florida residents though. A Georgia resident owning a vacation condo in Florida will be subject to Florida’s probate process at death. Thus, not only will the Estate be subject to Georgia probate proceedings, but it will need to file ancillary probate proceedings in Florida too. This rule is applicable to ownership of assets in any other state, not just Florida, as each individual state has their own laws about transferring title at death. Having a Living Trust own your out of state assets forecloses the necessity of multiple probate proceedings.
Another significant advantage to the Living Trust based Estate Plan is privacy. Despite Georgia’s ‘friendly’ probate laws, the original Will must still be filed with the Court and it becomes public record. This means anyone can review the terms of your Will at death. In addition, all of your heirs at law are entitled to notice of the filing of the Will and a copy thereof. For those that prefer their bequests remain private, or who perhaps have made an uneven distribution among their beneficiaries, the Living Trust may be a better choice. A Living Trust can even help avoid a Will contest where certain heirs may be left out of an inheritance.
Revocable Living Trusts can also be significantly beneficial to a Grantor who becomes incapacitated. Incapacity proceedings are becoming some of the most common probate court proceedings as people live longer but do not necessarily have all of their faculties. When you form and fund a Living Trust, you name a successor Trustee to take over management of the Trust assets upon either your death or incapacity, again, entirely skipping the court process for doing so. This provides a seamless, and immediate, transition of control from you to someone else in the event you can no longer manage your affairs. And, it is a person of your choosing. Your Trust document can even be very specific as to who and how you are determined to be incapacitated, thus giving you a great amount of control even where you would no longer have the ability to have such control.
The key to an effective Living Trust is fully funding the trust. Funding the trust is legally transferring title to all of your assets to the Trustee of the Trust. There are no tax consequences to such transfer as the trust is revocable, the IRS ‘looks through’ the trust and treats the assets as though they were still yours for income and transfer tax purposes. Funding is accomplished by changing the title on bank accounts and investment accounts and recording deeds to real property. Your attorney should go through specific funding instructions with you after a detailed analysis of your assets.
Finally, a Living Trust will contain all of the testamentary decisions and dispositions of a Will, including trusts as needed for the surviving spouse and descendants, charitable bequests and other gifts you want made upon your passing.